Our response to the joint Newcastle City Council, Gateshead Council 和 North Tyneside Council 空气质量public consultation calls for more green infrastructure 和 less overdevelopment, as well as measures to prioritise walking, cycling 和 public transport.
We support plans to create more efficient bus routes 和 to upgrade vehicles with cleaner engine technology, to improve cycle networks 和 to promote car sharing. We acknowledge that reducing 首要污染物排放是改善空气质量的优先事项，但是，绿色基础设施（GI）应在确保改善城市环境中的空气质量方面发挥关键作用。改善空气质量的措施不得仅限于增压清洁空气区或低排放区。 还有一些其他措施必须考虑以改善空气质量。
Overdevelopment in Newcastle has resulted in loss, 和/or under provision of, green open space, with thousands of houses being built to the north 和 west of the city 上 greenfield sites in areas poorly served 通过 public transport. This overdevelopment has inevitably resulted in more car journeys in 和 around the city centre; a pattern that 将会 repeated in other local authority areas, if measures are not in place to encourage more people to walk, cycle or use public transport.
In view of the impact of overdevelopment 上 traffic congestion 和 air quality, local authorities must review policies 上 development which exceeds the recommendations within local plans. Loss of green space inevitably harms the health 和 wellbeing of residents, particularly children, who are 55% less likely to develop mental health issues if they grow up near green spaces1.
The consultation refers briefly to the introduction of moss walls, however, GI is a natural solution to tackling many of the issues facing urban environments 和 must be given greater weight when considering air quality. In addition to mitigating for the harmful effects of air pollution 通过 controlling the flow 和 distribution of pollutants, GI reduces the urban heat island effect, thus mitigating for the impact of climate change. It also supports biodiversity 和 improves health 和 wellbeing.
Vegetation aids the deposition 和 removal of airborne pollutants 和 can be introduced in appropriate locations in the form of trees, hedgerows, living walls, green roofs, wildflower areas, as well as parks 和 open spaces. Research shows that asthma rates among children were significantly lower in areas with more street trees2, however, trees in the wrong place can trap pollutants, thus exacerbating poor air quality. Appropriate location 和 type of GI is important. 例如，研究表明，低树篱可以比行道树更有效地减少车辆污染的影响 在道路附近有大型建筑物的区域3 and broadleaf trees with larger leaf surface areas are more effective at absorbing pollutants. Research suggests that greening urban environments can reduce pollution 通过 30% 和 that green walls can sometimes be more effective than street trees4.
As well as trapping harmful particulate matter, GI can form green corridors that will, for many, enhance the prospect of walking 和 cycling5。有了对人的好处， wildlife and the wider environment, more emphasis should be given to GI, 和 resources from the National Green Infrastructure Facility in Newcastle should be drawn upon.
虽然引入了充电区 起到抑制许多汽车使用者的作用，它不会减少道路上的车辆数量，并会给周边地区带来后果。必须更加重视改善公共交通和提供价格合理的票价，以使公共交通更具吸引力 and viable option 我们希望了解有关此操作的详细信息 will be achieved. Public transport is all too often overly expensive 和 unreliable, with many people choosing to drive as an alternative. Local authorities must therefore prioritise working more closely with bus companies 和 developers to ensure sufficient infrastructure is in place. They must also prioritise working with schools 和 community groups to ensure public transport is a more 可行的 alternative, in particular school buses to reduce traffic congestion during term time, as well as with employers 和 businesses to secure flexible working for employees. Newcastle is supposedly at the forefront of a digital revolution, therefore should be ideally placed to provide innovative solutions to facilitate homeworking.
总之，泰恩赛德州地方当局必须通过审查住房数量发展政策来采取更全面的方法来应对空气质量危机 and open space, promoting walking, cycling 和 public transport 和 enhancing GI.
We trust these comments 将会 given due consideration 和 used to inform the Final Business Case for the Tyneside 空气质量Feasibility Study.
1. Engemann，K.，Pedersen，C.B.，Arge，L.，Tsirogiannis，C.，Mortensen，P.B.，Svenning，J-C。，（2019）。童年时期居住的绿色空间与从青春期到成年期的精神疾病风险降低相关。 PNAS
2. Lovasi，G. S.，Quinn，J.W.，Neckerman，K.M.，Perzanowski，M.S.，&Rundle，A.（2008年）。生活在街头树木较多的地区的儿童患哮喘的几率较低。 Journal of epidemiology 和 community health, 62（7），647–649。 doi：10.1136 / jech.2007.071894
3. Abhijith, K.V., Kumar, P., Gallagher, J., McNabola, A., Baldauf, R., Pilla, F., Broaderick, B., Di Sabatino, S., Pulvirenti, B., 2017. Air Pollution Abatement Performances of Green Infrastructure in Open Road 和 Built-up Street Canyon Environments â€“ A Review. Atmospheric Environment
4. Pugh, T. A. M., A. R. MacKenzie, J. D. Whyatt, 和 C. N. Hewitt (2012). “绿色基础设施对改善城市街道峡谷的空气质量的有效性。”环境科学&技术，46（14），7692-7699。 DOI：10.1021 / es300826w。